A naturally-occurring neurotransmitter and psychoactive medicinal drug, Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is also known as 4-hydroxybutanic acid. GABA, glutamate, and glycine precursors are found in some parts of the brain. This is a moderate agonist on the GHB receiver and on the GABAB receiver. GHB was used for general anesthesia and cataplexy, narcolepsy and alcoholism in a medical environment. This is also unlawfully used for overdose, fitness enhancement, date rape and leisure use. It is also used illegal as a substitute for sport. GHB is also formed as a result of fermentation. GHB are also present in small amounts in some beer and wines, beef and small citrus fruits in sodium Ţ-hydroxybutyrate (NaGHB, sodium oxybate, or Xyrem) or potassum α-hydroxybutyrate (KGGHB, potassium oxybate).
Narcoleptic treatment and, more rarely, alcoholism are the most common health applications for GHB today, although their use for alcoholism is not confirmed by randomised controlled trials. Off- label is sometimes used for fibromyalgia diagnosis. GHB is the active component of the sodium oxybate (Xyrem) prescription drug. US clearance for sodium oxybate Narcoleptics and prolonged daily sleepiness (EDS) associated with narcolepsy are prescribed for the treatment of cataplexy. In changed sleep latency experiments, GHB was shown to increase slow-wave sleep reliably and to decrease its propensity for REM sleep. GHB is a depressant central nervous system, and is used as a medicine. It has anecdotally defined its effects as comparable to ethanol (alcoholic) and MDMA, such as euphoria, disinhibition, enhanced libido and empathogenic conditions. GHB can cause nausea , dizziness, sleepiness, restlessness, visual disturbance, disturbed breathing, amnesia, unconsciousness, and death at high doses. Polydrug toxicity is a potential cause of death from GHB. Co-administration with other CNS depressants such as alcohol or benzodiazepines may have an additive effect as both are binding in the sites of the receptors of gamma aminobutyric acid.