Barbiturates Thiopental shall be used to induce anesthetics before other general anesthetics and to induce anesthesia through the use of a limited amount of meticulous stimulation for brief procedures, diagnosis, or therapy. Thiopental is a central nervous system ultrashort-action depressant that causes hypnosis and anesthesia but not analgesia. It leads to intravenous injection hypnosis in 30-40 seconds. Relief is fast, with some somnolence and retrograde amnesia after a small dose. Repeated intravenous doses contribute to extended anesthesia as a reservoir for fatty tissues.
• A thiobarbiturate, the sodium equivalent of sodium pentobarbital, is pentothal (thiopental sodium for injections, USP).
• The drug is developed as sterile powder and is given by intravenous route following reconstitution with a suitable diluent.
• Sodium 5-ethyl-5-(1-methylbutyl)-2-thiobarbiturate is chemical-identified as pentothal (thiopental sodium).
• This drug is yellowish, hyproscopic, balanced as a tampon (60 mg / g thiopental sodium) with anhydrous sodium carbonate.
Only in the intravenous route is given pentothal (thiopental sodium). Human drug reactions are so diverse that no set dose is possible. Age , sex and body weight of the drug should be titrated against the specifications of the patient. Younger patients are slightly more likely than elderly and middle-aged patients to metabolize their medication slowly. For both sexes, especially for adult women, the conditions of pre-puberty are the same. Dose is typically proportional to body weight and patients with obesity need a greater dose than people of the same weight who are relatively lean.
Atropine or scopolamine are typically a premedication that suppresses vagal reflexes and prevents secretions. A barbiturate or opiate is additionally commonly administered. The injection of sodium-pentobarbital is proposed as a preliminary indication of the reaction of the patient to anesthesia barbiturate. Ideally, these medications will achieve their peak effect shortly before the induction date.
In "normal" adults it is typically possible to administer moderate slow induction at intervals of 20 to 40 seconds depending on the patient 's reaction from 50 to 75 mg (2 to 3 ml of a 2.5-percent solution) Up to 25 to 50 mg can be administered when the patient moves after the anesthesia is developed.
• To mitigate respiratory discomfort and the risk of overdosage, slow injection is recommended.
• The desired goal is to achieve the minimum dose consistent with the surgical objective.
• Typical is the current apnea after each injector, and the decrease in breathing rate is gradual with a higher dose.
• Pulse remains constant or slightly rises and returns to normal.
• Generally the blood pressure decreases slightly but returns to normal.
• Muscles normally relax after unconsciousness takes about 30 seconds; this can be disguised if a relaxing skeleton muscle is used.